<address id="1n5bh"></address>
    <address id="1n5bh"><nobr id="1n5bh"></nobr></address>

    <address id="1n5bh"><listing id="1n5bh"></listing></address>
    <form id="1n5bh"></form>

        <sub id="1n5bh"><nobr id="1n5bh"><menuitem id="1n5bh"></menuitem></nobr></sub>

          走進農墾
          關于農墾

          中國共產黨領導的農墾事業起源于抗日戰爭時期。1939年冬,在毛澤東同志“自己動手、豐衣足食”的號召下,陜甘寧邊區開展軍民大生產運動,延安創辦了抗日民主根據地第一個農場――光華農場。王震同志率領120師359旅,按照“農業為第一位、工業與運輸業為第二位、商業為第三位”的方針,開發建設了南泥灣。1947年,東北各省創建了一批國營農場。1948年,華北人民政府農業部在河北省冀縣、衡水、永年交界的千頃洼建立了解放區第一個機械化國營農場――冀衡農場。1949年,建立了一批以安置榮譽軍人為主的榮軍農場和組織國民黨“解放軍官”生產勞動的解放團農場。

          新中國成立后,在毛澤東等老一輩無產階級革命家的親自決策和領導下,以成建制的人民解放軍轉業官兵為骨干、吸收大批知識分子、支邊青年組成農墾大軍,奔赴邊疆和內地的亙古荒原,開始了大規模墾荒造田、興辦國有農場的創業歷程。新中國農墾事業的發展歷程大體上可分為五個階段:

          第一階段:建國初期艱苦開拓(1949-1966年)。新中國成立之初,為迅速恢復和發展生產,妥善安置大批軍人,中央人民政府人民革命軍事委員會決定組織軍隊參加農業生產,農墾事業開始大規模發展。1951年,政務院作出《關于擴大培植橡膠樹的決定》,在華南地區開荒建設橡膠農場。1956年中共中央、國務院決定成立農墾部,統一管理全國軍墾農場和地方經營的國營農場。1958年起,在中央部署下,大批轉業官兵、內地支邊青年和城市知識青年紛紛奔赴邊疆、荒原和戈壁灘建設農場。到1966年,全國共建立了1940個農場,有職工284萬人,耕地4784萬畝,天然橡膠250萬畝,年產糧食81億斤,干膠2.3萬噸。

          第二階段:“文化大革命”中遭遇挫折(1967-1976年)。在此期間農墾部及省級農墾管理機構被撤銷,大批國營農場被下放,原有的管理制度被破壞,農墾系統連年虧損,十年間共虧損32億元。

          第三階段:改革開放中不斷發展(1977-2001年)。十一屆三中全會以后,農墾系統進行了一系列重大改革。1978年,國務院決定在農墾系統國營農場試辦農工商聯合企業,實行農工商綜合經營,突破了農場長期單一經營農業的格局。1983年起,農墾系統興辦職工家庭農場,建立大農場套小農場的雙層經營體制,解決了職工吃企業“大鍋飯”問題。這期間,農墾系統以市場經濟為導向,逐步建立和完善現代企業制度,加大對外開放力度,完善職工社會保障制度。

          第四階段:前進步伐全面加快(2002-2014年)。農墾系統加快推行集團化、企業化、股份化改革,不斷理順管理體制,創新運行機制,著力激發農墾內在活力;積極開展改革辦社會職能、建立社會保障體系、加大土地管理力度、努力化解債務,著力優化農墾發展環境;積極實施農業“走出去”戰略。農墾管理體制更加適應市場經濟體制要求,企業經營機制更加靈活高效,打造了一批具有市場競爭力的現代農業企業集團。農墾經濟效益保持持續高速增長,自2002年全系統扭虧為盈以來,經濟增長率連續13年保持在10%以上。

          第五階段:農墾改革發展進入新時代(2015年至今。2015年11月27日,中共中央、國務院印發《關于進一步推進農墾改革發展的意見》。以此為標志,農墾改革發展進入新時代。文件指出,農墾是國有農業經濟的骨干和代表,是推進中國特色新型農業現代化的重要力量。新形勢下農墾承擔著更加重要的歷史使命。努力把農墾建設成為保障國家糧食安全和重要農產品有效供給的國家隊、中國特色新型農業現代化的示范區、農業對外合作的排頭兵、安邊固疆的穩定器。全國農墾貫徹落實中央農墾改革發展文件精神,用3年左右時間基本完成了農墾國有土地使用權確權登記發證和改革國有農場辦社會職能任務。墾區集團化和農場企業化改革穩步推進,建設現代農業大基地、大企業、大產業,把農墾建設成為具有國際競爭力的現代農業企業集團,努力形成農業領域的航母。

          About China State Farm

          The cause of China State Farm led by the Communist Party of China is originated in Anti-Japanese War. In the winter of 1939, under Chairman Mao Zedong's call for "ample food and clothing by working with our own hands", the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia border area began a mass production campaign among the army and the people, establishing the first farm, Guanghua Farm, in the Anti-Japanese Base Area. Under the guideline of "agriculture first, industry and transportation second, business third", General Wang Zhen led Division 120 NRA and Brigade 359 NRA  to construct and develop Nanniwan. In 1947, the Three Northeast Provinces established a batch of state farms. In 1948, the People's Government  of North China built the first mechanized farm, Jiheng Farm, in the thousand-hectare puddle located in the border area of Jixian, Hengshui and Yongnian in Hebei Province. In 1949, a batch of farms was established, including merit farms for the honored soldiers, and liberation farms for the Kuomintang's soldiers.

          Since the People's Republic of China was founded, under the leadership of predecessors of proletarian revolution represented by Chairman Mao, the pioneers consisted of demobilized soldiers, intellectuals and border-supporting youths went to the frontier and wilderness to reclaim wasteland and build state farms. The development of China State Farm is broadly divided into five stages:

          Stage I: tough beginning in early years of New China (1949-1966). In the early years of New China, in order to resume the production rapidly and place numbers of soldiers properly, People's Revolutionary Military Committee of the Central Government decided to organize troops to support the nation's agricultural production. Since then, the cause of China State Farm developed fast on a large scale. In 1951, the State Council published Decision on Expansion of Rubber Trees Planting, started to open up wasteland for rubber farms in South China. In 1956, the Central Committee of CPC decided to found Ministry of State Farm, which was in charge of the unified management of the nation's army farms and the locally-operated state farms. Since 1958, under the arrangement of the Central Committee, the pioneers consisted of demobilized soldiers, intellectuals and border-supporting youths went to the frontier and wilderness to reclaim wasteland and build state farms. Till 1966, China had established 1940 farms, with 2.84 million workers, 3.19 million hectares of crop land, 0.17 million hectares of rubber land, 4050 million kilograms of annual grain output, and 23 kilotons of dry glue.

          Stage II: suffering setbacks in the "Cultural Revolution" (1967-1976). In this period, Ministry of State Farm and its provincial agencies were abolished, together with the delegation of state farms to local governments. Because of the former administration system being damaged, the state farm system suffered continued loss, which was totally RMB 3200 million in a decade.

          Stage III: developing steadily in Reform and Opening Up (1977-2001). Since the Eleventh CPC Central Committee, the state farm system has made a series of major reforms. In 1978, under the State Council's decision of developing agro-industrial-commercial combines in state farm system, breaking through the former pattern of farms operating agriculture only. Since 1983, the state farm system had established worker's family-owned farms in the large farms, which had solved  "common big rice pot" among the employees. Driven by market economy during this time, the state farm system has gradually developed modernized enterprise institution, kept opening to the world, and improved social security system of the employees.

          Stage IV: developing fast in all aspects (2002-2014). The state farm system has made efforts to its development: making reform in collectivization, enterprization and share-holding, improving management regimes and operation mechanism, to stimulate the internal vitality; depriving social functions, establishing social security provisions, optimizing land management and releasing debt, to improve the  circumstance for better development; carrying out the "Going Out" Strategy in agriculture. With all these efforts, the management regimes and operation mechanism of state farms has adapted to the market economy much better, and a batch of competitive modern agricultural enterprises (groups) has been built. The state farm system has achieved remarkable economic results in this period. Since achieving profitability in 2002, its benefit growth rate has reached over 10% for 13 consecutive years.  

          Stage V: the reform of state farm system in new era (2015 till now). On November 27th, 2015, the Central Committee of CPC and the State Council has published Guidance on Further Promoting Reform in State Farm System. Markedly, the reform in state farm system has developed in new era. As the document claims, the state farm system is the core and model of China's state-owned agricultural economy, as well as the main force in promoting modernization of Chinese characteristics agriculture. In new era, the state farm system undertakes a more important mission, that is, guaranteeing food security and important food supply of the nation, establishing demonstration area of modernized Chinese characteristics agriculture, developing agricultural international cooperation, and defending the frontier. Putting the Guidance into action, all the state farms accomplished state-owned land right registration and certification in around three years. Nowadays, collectivization in reclamation areas and enterprization in farms are advanced steadily, with modernized big base, large enterprise and grand industry in agriculture being built. Moreover, since the modernized enterprises (groups) from state farm system are more competitive in the world, its place of model in agricultural field has gradually been shaped.

          ?
          主辦單位:中國農墾經濟發展中心
          地址:北京市朝陽區東三環南路96號農豐大廈 郵編:100122
          京ICP備11035685號-1 京公網安備 11010502034728號
             
          欧美一级A片免费区,日韩AAA毛片免费观看,被公侵犯玩弄漂亮人妻中文

          <address id="1n5bh"></address>
            <address id="1n5bh"><nobr id="1n5bh"></nobr></address>

            <address id="1n5bh"><listing id="1n5bh"></listing></address>
            <form id="1n5bh"></form>

                <sub id="1n5bh"><nobr id="1n5bh"><menuitem id="1n5bh"></menuitem></nobr></sub>